HPV vaccine is recommended for men who have sex with men (MSM) who have not previously been vaccinated. The number of doses and the interval between doses should follow the recommendations in Table. Recommended doses and intervals between doses for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, by age group at the start of the course.
The decision to vaccinate should consider:
- the likelihood of previous exposure to HPV
- the person’s future risk of HPV exposure
Patterns of male HPV infection are markedly different from those of women. Men have stable incidence and prevalence throughout life. Most women develop effective immunity early in the years after sexual debut.8,9
Overall, MSM have a higher risk of repeated and persistent HPV infection and associated diseases, such as genital warts and anal cancer. This is regardless of their HIV status or other immunocompromising conditions.6,10 In addition, at the population level, MSM are less likely to benefit from herd protection attained from HPV vaccination of females.