Age or size of person to be vaccinated

Needle type

Angle of needle insertion

Infant, child or adult for intramuscular vaccines

22–25 gauge, 25 mm long

90° to skin plane

Preterm infant (<37 weeks gestation) up to 2 months of age, and/or very small infant

23–25 gauge, 16 mm long

90° to skin plane

Very large or obese person

22–25 gauge, 38 mm long

90° to skin plane

Subcutaneous injection in all people

25–27 gauge, 16 mm long

45° to skin plane

Intradermal injection in all people

26–27 gauge, 10 mm long

5-15° to skin plane

Sources: Kroger et al,14 Diggle and Deeks,18, Diggle et al,20 Poland et al,23 Cook et al27

Last updated: 
27 September 2021
Last reviewed: 
27 September 2021